Indian Pediatr. 2012 Jun 10. pii: S097475591100998-1. [Epub ahead of print]
Residential Environmental Tobacco Smoke Exposure During Pregnancy and Low Birth Weight of Neonates: Case Control Study in a Public Hospital in Lucknow, India.
Khattar D, Awasthi S, Das V.
Departments of Pediatrics, and * Obstetrics and Gynecology, CSMMU, Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. Correspondence to: Prof. Shally Awasthi, Department of Pediatrics, CSMMU (Erstwhile King Georges Medical College), Lucknow, Uttar Pradesh, India. firstname.lastname@example.org.
To determine whether residential environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) exposure during pregnancy is associated with low birth weight (LBW) neonates and establish a dose response relationship.
Case control study carried out in a tertiary care hospital in Lucknow, India from May to July 2011. Excluded were women smokers and tobacco chewers, high parity (>3), multiple pregnancy and still births. Included were 100 cases and 200 controls, aged 20 to 30 years. Mothers giving birth to LBW neonate (2.5 kg at birth were controls. Information was collected on ETS exposure and other risk factors of LBW within 24 hours of delivery. Clinical information like maternal haemoglobin levels, birth weight and gestational age of the neonate was extracted from hospital records.
On univariate analysis, preterm pregnancy, low socioeconomic status, previous LBW neonate, no utilization of antenatal care (ANC), severe anemia and ETS exposure were statistically significantly associated with LBW neonate and controlling for these in logistic regression analysis, adjusted Odds ratio for ETS exposure association with LBW neonate was 3.16 (95% CI=1.88-5.28). A dose response relationship was also found which was statistically significant (10-20 cigarettes smoked/day: OR = 4.06, 95% CI=1.78-9.26 and >20 cigarettes smoked/day, OR = 17.62, 95% CI= 3.76-82.43).
Exposure to ETS during pregnancy is associated with LBW of neonates. Hence, there is an urgent need to increase awareness about health hazards of ETS during pregnancy and bring about behavioural changes accordingly as a one of the strategies to reduce LBW deliveries in India